Sheet copper is rubbed down to create a surface. Next chemicals and paints are applied to change the surface and create the first layer of texture. Next the pieces might be rubbed down again or scratched or a resist applied to create another layer. Then various layers are applied : 22ct gold leaf, silver leaf, foils, paint, leaves, flowers, grasses, etc. Often several layers are used to build up the image.These 'icons in miniature' are put into glass frames using a highly refined stained glass technique.